An object consists of some data together with a set of subroutines that manipulate that data. (An object is a kind of “module,” or self-contained entity that communicates with the rest of the world through a well-defined interface. An object should represent some coherent concept or real-world object.)

The Java platform is designed from the ground up to support concurrent programming, with basic concurrency support in the Java programming language and the Java class libraries.

The two basic units of execution in concurrent programming in relation to the Java programming language.

In concurrent programming, there are two basic units of execution: processes and threads. In the Java programming language, concurrent programming is mostly concerned with threads.

Java provides built-in support for multithreaded programming. This is where a program contains two or more parts that can run concurrently. Each part of such a program is called a thread, and each thread defines a separate path of execution.

It is a specialized form of multitasking.It requires less overhead than multitasking processing.

I need to define another term related to threads: process: A process consists of the memory space allocated by the operating system that can contain one or more threads. A thread cannot exist on its own; it must be a part of a process. A process remains running until all of the non-daemon threads are done executing.

This enables you to write very efficient programs that make maximum use of the CPU, because idle time can be kept to a minimum.

Life Cycle of a Thread:

  • New: A new thread begins its life cycle in the new state. It remains in this state until the program starts the thread. It is also referred to as a born thread.
  • Runnable: After a newly born thread is started, the thread becomes runnable. A thread in this state is considered to be executing its task.
  • Waiting: Sometimes, a thread transitions to the waiting state while the thread waits for another thread to perform a task.A thread transitions back to the runnable state only when another thread signals the waiting thread to continue executing.
  • Timed waiting: A runnable thread can enter the timed waiting state for a specified interval of time. A thread in this state transitions back to the runnable state when that time interval expires or when the event it is waiting for occurs.
  • Terminated: A runnable thread enters the terminated state when it completes its task or otherwise terminates.

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